Friday, September 20, 2019

Theories of Consciousness: History, AI and Animals

Theories of Consciousness: History, AI and Animals Consciousness Andrew P Allen History and Philosophy People can mean various things when they talk about â€Å"consciousness†. At a simple level, one can mean awareness of one’s world or one’s internal drives (e.g. thirst). A more complex form of consciousness is awareness of one’s own awareness, the consciousness that allows people to psychologise about themselves. Approaching the concept from a different angle, â€Å"consciousness† sometimes means the sense of what it is like to be someone or have a particular experience. Although we may have a sense of what an experience is like, it is very difficult to describe exactly what the experience is like (c.f. Ned Block, 1990, for an interesting discussion). A key issue within philosophy of mind is the â€Å"mind-body problem†: can a physical body produce a subjective, apparently non-physical mind, and if so, how? Materialists take the position that the mind is the product of the brain, while dualists hold that body and mind are not the same thing. The position of dualism is typically associated with Rà ©nà © Descartes, who suggested that mind and body are two different types of matter (see for a discussion). In attempting to explain how the brain produces awareness, neuroscientists would tend towards materialism. Regarding brain and consciousness, Place (1956/1990) has drawn an analogy with clouds and the droplets of water that form them. Although a cloud observed at a distance and droplets of water observed close-up seem very different, the many droplets of water nonetheless make up the cloud. So it (perhaps) is with the brain and consciousness; the firing of a neuron may seem very different from a mental image of a new car, but there is no reason to say that this mental image cannot consist of nothing more than the action of many neurons. Daniel Dennett has criticized what he calls the â€Å"Cartesian theatre†; a given place in the brain where sensations, memory traces etc. are combined to form consciousness. There is a danger of positing a neural â€Å"homunculus† (a â€Å"little man† in the head) which observes the various non-conscious parts of the brain and turns them into conscious experience. It does at least seem evasive to propose a single part of the brain is responsible for turning sensations from unconscious information processing to conscious experience without specifying the process whereby such a change occurs. Dennett is setting a high bar for the neural correlate of consciousness (see below); you have to give a full explanation of how the process of consciousness is brought about by the brain without suggesting that some brain area just acts in a conscious way. If we accept that the brain (and the rest of the body?) produces consciousness, then we have to reject dualism (Edelman, 2003), or at least a strong version thereof. Edelman points out that consciousness has a wide range of interesting properties (e.g. it feels unitary, so it seems it requires the binding of multiple sources of sensory information). He suggests that evolutionary pressure would favour cognitive structures which could integrate information from multiple sources. Consciousness in the brain Given that consciousness is stopped when the activity of some regions is stopped, it seems fair to assume that the brain may be responsible for consciousness. However, the question remains: how do these brain regions lead to the conscious experience (Churchland, 2012)? Crick and Koch (1998) highlight some of the key issues. At any time, the brain is doing a lot of things, but only some of these things appear in our consciousness. Is there anything special about the neurons involved in consciousness and their type of firing? What about the connections between them? There has been some interest in finding a so-called neural correlate of consciousness. Edelman (2003) takes the approach of looking at connections. He posits â€Å"re-entry† as a process which could account for how functionally distinct parts of the brain co-ordinate their activities to produce a combined output. It involves recursive signalling over multiple pathways which are used simultaneously. He suggests that this process allows for the binding of outputs from different brain areas to form an integrated sense of experience. Edelman suggests the thalamocortical system as â€Å"a dynamic core† for consciousness. The thalamic intralaminar nuclei (ILN) may play a particularly important role in consciousness; it projects axons widely to all cortical areas, and small lesions to the ILN are associated with significant loss of awareness (Bogen, 1997). Note that the ILN may be necessary but not sufficient for consciousness; it is through its interaction with corticol regions that it could produce something like consciousness. The thalamocortical system conta ins functionally distinct sub-parts which may act semi-independently, while also being able to integrate information between themselves. By suggesting that consciousness could be brought about by brain processes and their interaction, Edelman’s idea may avoid falling into the trap of the Cartesian theatre. Attention and consciousness At first, it might seem like attention and consciousness might be the same thing; when we attend to something, we are conscious of it, and when we are conscious of something, we are attending to it, right? However, it has been argued that you can have either consciousness or attention without having the other (Koch and Tsuchiya, 2007). They cite work which uses interocular suppression (i.e. presenting different images to each eye in order to reduce perception of some/all of these images) to present both a nude image and a meaningless scramble of its pixels, while simultaneously rendering the nude image invisible to consciousness. Nonetheless, heterosexual participants attend to nude images of the opposite sex more than scrambled control images (Jiang et al., 2006). Hence, attention without consciousness! Another example of attention without consciousness is blindsight, where patients with damage to the primary visual cortex can report properties of visual stimuli above chance level, but without awareness of having seen anything (Weiskrantz, 1997). Subliminal presentation of stimuli can be processed by brain areas associated with emotional processing, such as the amygdala (Naccache et al., 2005). I’m less convinced by Koch and Tsuchiya’s argument that one can have consciousness without attention. Their argument seems to be based on limiting their point to top-down attention processes. For example, they suggest that one can make out the gist of an image after a very brief presentation. Of course, there may be little top-down processing going on here, and 30 ms may be too short a time to talk about â€Å"sustained attention†, but after all, one has to orient to the image in order to perceive it. Perhaps you may see it otherwise Are non-humans conscious? Trying to define consciousness at a brain level may be even more difficult when it comes to non-human animals. This question is also important for the ethical consideration of neuroscientists who work with animals. If one is to work with a particular species, one should at least try to be aware of its capacity for suffering. Panksepp (2005) argues that affect is largely produced by processes concentrated in subcortical, limbic regions in the mammalian brain. He defines consciousness as brain states which are associated with feeling or experience. He distinguishes raw, primary-process consciousness from secondary consciousness, which can relate to how external events relate to internal states, and tertiary consciousness, which is basically meta-cognition. Panksepp attacks what he seems to perceive as a wilful ignorance of the affective experience by neuroscientists working with animals, and criticises those who suppose that all consciousness is dependent upon the advanced linguistic and reasoning skills possessed by humans. However, the fact is acknowledged that outward behaviour may give a misleading impression of internal affective states. Nonetheless, he defends an internal affective life in animals, citing evidence of differing vocalisations of rats in response to environments associated with pleasurable/unpleasant drugs (Burgdorf, Knutson, Panksepp, Ikemoto, 2001a, 2001b), as well as neural mechanisms underlying desire for certain drugs which are similar to those in humans. Given similar subcortical machinery in other mammalian life, such research may give insight into the affective life of humans. However, studying consciousness in animals can be tricky; although anaesthesia is often used in certain techniques, if one wishes to study consciousness then any form of anaesthesia or sedation may bias results (Crick Koch, 1998). The work of Gallup (1970) used a simple behavioural test to examine self-awareness in chimpanzees. A mirror was inserted in their environment. Although the animals initially responded socially to it, they began to groom in response to it. When they were marked with a red dot in their sleep they used the mirror to try to clean the dot off. However, this level of performance was not evident in other primates. However, the so-called â€Å"hard problem of consciousness† (what is it really like?) may be insoluble. Thomas Nagel (1974) famously used animal life as an illustration of how difficult it is to grasp qualia (i.e. the subjective feeling of what something is like) by asking the question â€Å"what is like to be a bat?† Aside from bringing up again the issue of knowing others’ minds, the comparison here is stronger because it shifts from trying to second-guess the thoughts of fellow humans to trying to imagine the thoughts and feelings of a strange species. The implication is that, even if we were to understand all the neural processes tied up with the bat’s nervous system which bring about consciousness, we would still not be able to fully imagine what it is like to be a bat. Artificial intelligence and models of altered consciousness Although a large proportion of neuroscience involves backwards engineering of the brain (i.e. taking something which has already been engineered by evolution and trying to tease apart its structure and function), artificial intelligence, by engineering intelligent systems, can also be used to observe if a particular account of how the brain works actually produces a comparable output when you run it through a computer program (if the program doesn’t produce the same output as the â€Å"natural† brain, this may pose a problem for your theory, or vice versa). (Note this process of back-propagation is somewhat reminiscent of Edelman’s idea of re-entry). Takeno has found that the robot can distinguish between its own image in a mirror from either a second robot or another robot which follows the test robot’s instructions. The robot is equipped with LED lights allowing it to demonstrate distinct responses to its own mirrored behavior compared to that of another robot, including another robot engaging in the same behaviour (Takiguchi, Mizunaga, Takeno, 2013). See the following brief video: A neural network was used to model how the excessive loss of synapses during adolescence could lead to auditory hallucinations reported in schizophrenia (Hoffman McGlashen, 1997). Pruning was carried out in a â€Å"Darwinian† fashion by removing neural units which were less well-connected to other units, in addition to modelling cell death which could be associated with excessive loss of neurons. Excessive loss of neural units produced a model of hallucination whereby words were coming up as perceived at the output layer of the network even when words were not being entered at the input layer. Although the authors admit that such models are vastly simplified models of the real thing, by reproducing (modeled) phenomena visible in the world (in this case, auditory hallucinations), they allow one to study such phenomena by testing if the mechanisms one hypothesizes explain such phenomena (in this case, excessive loss of neurons involved in working memory) actually produce the ph enomenon under investigation. Interestingly, the neurons pruned were modeled on corticocortical connections rather than thalamocortical connections (the type suggested by Edelman to play a key role in producing conscious experience itself). Consciousness: a clinical case A vegetative state is where a patient shows no overt signs of awareness, even though they are visibly awake. However, the idea that people in a persistent vegetative state lack consciousness has been challenged by recent research. Patients in a minimally conscious state or persistent vegetative state have been instructed to perform mental imagery tasks while undergoing fMRI (Monti et al., 2010). The tasks used are associated with activity in the parahippocampal gyrus and the supplementary motor area; areas which are associated with actually carrying out the activity. A minority of the participants showed activity in response to the tasks similar to healthy controls. However, bearing in mind that information can be processed without conscious awareness (as alluded to in the discussion of attention and consciousness), is it possible that this brain activity may have emerged automatically, without the patients having any conscious awareness of the scene described to them by the research ers? Such an interpretation is challenged by the following finding: a number of healthy controls and 1 patient were asked questions, and instructed to think of one mental image if the answer was â€Å"yes† and a different mental image if the answer was â€Å"no†. The patient showed signs of being able to complete this task. The fact that the participants could control what was imagined suggests that they may have been aware of their own awareness. Adrian Owen talks about these issues at the following link: Embodiment The idea that the brain is, or at least is very much like, a computer is quite popular. Indeed, computers themselves have increasingly sophisticated artificial intelligence. Of course, a lot of the information we process is not purely symbolic for us; it is viscerally linked to our bodily states and physiological drives, and thus embodied. Returning to the question of what it is like to be a bat, we can consider the brain of this animal and how it works, but even if we could understand all brain functions of the bat, there would still be other differences between our species. For example, bats have wings which they can use to fly. What is it really like at a subjective level to do this? If we were to both given the chance to experience this kind of flight, your answer to this question could be completely different from mine, and yet perhaps we would both be right about our own experience. References Block, N. (1990). Inverted Earth. Philosophical Perspectives, 4, 53-79. Bogen, J.E. (1997). Some neurophysiologic aspects of consciousness. Seminars in Neurology, 17(2), 95-103. Burgdorf, J., Knutson, B., Panksepp, J., Ikemoto, S. (2001a). Nucleus accumbens amphetamine microinjections unconditionally elicit 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 115, 940–944. Burgdorf, J., Knutson, B., Panksepp, J., Shippenberg, T. (2001b). Evaluation of rat ultrasonic vocalizations as predictors of the conditioned aversive eà ¯Ã‚ ¬Ã¢â€š ¬ects of drugs. Psychopharmacology, 155, 35–42. Churchland, P.M., (2012). Consciousness, in: Gregory, R.L. (Ed.), The Oxford companion to the mind. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK. Crich, F., Koch, C. (1998). Consciousness and neuroscience. Cerebral Cortex, 8, 97-107. Edelman, G. (2003). Naturalizing consciousness: A theoretical framework. PNAS, 100(9), 5520-5524. Gallup, G. 91970). Chimpanzees: Self-recognition. Science, 167(3914), 85-87. Hoffman, R.E., McGlashen, T.H. (1997). Synaptic elimination, neurodevelopment, and the mechanism of hallucinated â€Å"voices† in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1683-1689. Jiang, Y., Costello, P., Fang, F., Huang, M., He, S., (2006). A gender- and sexual orientation-dependent spatial attentional effect of invisible images. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103, 17048-17052. Koch, C., Tsuchiya, N., (2007). Attention and consciousness: two distinct brain processes. Trends in cognitive sciences 11, 16-22. Monti, M.M., Vanhaudenhuyse, A., Coleman, M.R., Boly, M., Pickard, J.D., Tshibanda, L., Owen, A.M., Laureys, S., (2010). Willful modulation of brain activity in disorders of consciousness. New England Journal of Medicine 362, 579-589. Naccache, L., Gaillard, R., Adam, C., Hasboun, D., Clà ©menceau, S., Baulac, M., Dehaene, S., Cohen, L., (2005). A direct intracranial record of emotions evoked by subliminal words. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102, 7713-7717. Nagel, T. (1974). What is it like to be a bat? Philosophical Review, 83, 435-450. Panksepp, J. (2005). Affective consciousness: core emotional feelings in animals and humans. Consciousness and cognition. Place, U.T., (1956/1990). Is consciousness a brain process?, in: Lycan, W.G. (Ed.), Mind and cognition: An anthology. Blackwell, Malden, Massachusetts, pp. 14-19. Takiguchi, T., Mizunaga, A., Takeno, J. (2013). A study of self-awareness in robots. International Journal of Machine Consciousness, 5, 142. Weiskrantz, L. (1997). Consciousness lost and found. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Database Migration and Architecture: Bee Colony Optimization Database Migration and Architecture: Bee Colony Optimization Abstract: It is compulsory for two servers to be compatible if you have to either import or export the data. All the servers have unique protocol service through which they communicate. It is not possible for a server to directly transmit or receive the data from any other server. A live example is the developed codes at different platforms like JAVA, Visual Studio and others. This task becomes more sophisticated when it comes to communication of data along with its architecture. This paper focused their work in migrating the data from one server to another with the use of XAML protocol in which three servers have been included to migrate the data. The first server is the server from where the data has to be migrated, the second server is the server where data is fetched to be migrated and the third server is the server where data has to be migrated. The entire work has been performed using Development tool visual studio 2010 with data base connectivity with SQL SERVER 05. In this pa per we are proposing a technique for migration of the platform architecture along with the data with perfect accuracy to another cloud platform using Simple Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) concept will take a lot of effort due to the sophisticated architecture of a system protocol. This may lead to a new era in the cloud computing. Keywords: BCO, Data Migration, XAML, SQL SERVER 05. INTRODUCTION: Cloud computing is an Internet based computing technology, where the word ‘cloud’ means Internet and ‘computing’ refers to services that can accessed directly over the internet. Cloud provider maintains the cloud data server or cluster that is collection of computer to provide computing services on a large scale. For providing both software services as well as management services this scale can be used. Any device like PCs’, tablets, smartphones, etc. personal can provide access to cloud computing services, as these devices can connect to the internet. This is because the technology infrastructure of cloud computing is not based on consumer premises. Cloud computing comes in various forms, shapes, and sizes as there is variety of cloud formations [1]. Cloud Computing can be also described as type of application and platform. Platform means to supply the servers or machines; machine can be virtual or physical. Machines can be configure and reconfigure. Type of application depends on the demand of its user, various resources are available over the internet through cloud computing. Resources come in forms – hardware and software resources can be used in scalable and flexible manner. Also the costs can be reduced. There are mainly three aspects of cloud computing: Iaas (Infrastructure as a Service) – number crunching, data storage and management services (computer servers). SaaS (Software as a Service) – ‘web based’ applications (like Gmail). PaaS (Platform as a Service) – essentially an operating system in the cloud like Google AppEngine [2]. Data migration the term ‘migration’ is the process of moving from one location to another. In the process of Data migration, the data is transferred between various computer systems, storage types, or formats. To achieve an automated migration, data migration is usually performed programmatically. To give an efficient data migration method, data is mapped to the new system from the previous old system providing a design by data loading and data extraction. Programmatic data migration consists of many steps but it mostly includes data extraction in which the data from the old system writes to the current system [3]. In migration, to improve the quality of data, eliminate the redundancy or invalid information, manual and automated data cleaning is mostly done. Before deploying to the new system, various migration steps like designing, extraction, loading, cleaning and verification are mostly repeated for many applications whether of high or moderate complexity. Four major types of data migration: Application migration Database migration Storage migration Business process migration BEE COLONY OPTIMIZATION (BCO): The bee colony optimization (BCO) has been recently introduced as new approach in the field of Swarm Intelligence. There is a colony of honey bees that can extend their selves over the long distances. To exploit large number of food bees extend itself in multiple directions at the same time. The artificial bees represent the agents, which collectively solves complex problems. The algorithm BCO is inspired by the original behavior of the bees’ in nature. By creating colony of artificial bees, BCO can successfully used to solve complex problems. The behavior of the artificial bees is partially similar to the behavior of bees’ in nature and partially dissimilar to the behavior of bees’ in nature. The BCO algorithm is basically, based on population. The population of the artificial bees searches for the valid solution in the population. An artificial bee solves complex problems and described as agents. One solution is generated to the every problem by the artificial bees [4]. Bee colony optimization consists of two phases: A) Forward pass: In forward pass, search space is explored by every artificial bee, also obtains a new solution and improves the solution and then bees’ again go back to the nest. B) Backward pass: After bees’ go back to the nest they shared the solutions of various information. RELATED WORK Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (2012) explain the working over the cloud platforms for the last few decades. According to him the general migration issue raises when your data is not secure at the one platform. Now the issue comes that whether we can transfer the data with the architecture from one end to another. He proposed that if we can use the TCP/IP technique to find out at which server the data is going to be migrated and if we can configure it to the server from where the data has to be migrated can make a difference into the migration but he did not talk about how an existing architecture allows the second server to be configured into itself [5]. Diva Agawam talks about the server compatibility, according to them as a basic network the PC equipments had been over, with the popularization of technology of embedded system and the internet. Traditional Ethernet fields are infiltrated from embedded equipments . Besides PC, there are several embedded equipments as nodes present. User can easily refer the correlative information if he has the web server accessing permission. The administrator can easily manage and validate the equipments but accessing it over IP, is a great challenge [6]. R.SUCHITRA said that in cloud environment, there is necessity of Server consolidation of virtual machines for cost cutting and energy conservation. With live migration server consolidation can be achieved of virtual machines. For Server Consolidation, we propose a been packing algorithm which is modified to reduce the instantiation of new servers and to avoid the migrations that are not necessary. The algorithm is simulated using multiple test cases and using java. For live migration of virtual machines, ideas are taken from the decreasing strategy of First Fit algorithm [7]. Jayson Tom Hilter talks about the SOAP proto calling in his words. SOAP is a messaging framework, based on XML. Over the internet for exchanging formatted data, SOAP is specially designed. It can be understand with the example of sending the complete documents and using reply and request messages or. It is not affected with the different operating system, programming languages, or platform of distributed computing. A more efficient way was needed to explain the messages and how these messages are communicated. The WSDL (Web Services Description Language) is a specific form of an XML Schema, implemented by Microsoft and IBM for defining the XML message, its operation, and its protocol mapping of a web service used during SOAP or other XML protocol [8]. Qura-Tul-Ain Khan, Said Nasser â€Å"talks that cloud computing is a computing platform which is present in large data center. To deliver cloud computing resources various problems occurs like privacy issues, security, and access, regulations, reliability, electricity and other issues. In every field cloud computing is able to address the servers to fulfill their wide range of needs [9]. RESULTS The proposed architecture migration system has been implemented using VSUAL STUDIO 2010. The performance of various database migration and architecture migration system is analyzed and discussed. Two servers minimum are involved in the data migration. To migrate the architecture system by using XAML language pattern avoiding the time delay of the data migration and ensuring the security analysis of the data getting migrated. The purpose of this work is justified when the data along with the architecture is migrated to another platform. To attain the goal, a mid level XAML architecture would be drawn which would show the compatibility with both the server. In the process, the middle server would first analyze the architecture of the first server from where the data has to be migrated and would generate the XAML for it. As XAML is one of the most light weight language and it is supported by all other platforms also, it would be easier for the second server to adapt the language. The mi ddle server would do amendments in the local XAML according to the architecture which has to be migrated to the next sever. Once the second XAML is generated, it would use the TCP IP protocol service along with the SQL Query injector to transfer the XAML from one end to another and would migrate the architecture completely. The successful migration of the architecture is examined by various parameters. Three parameters are used: Accuracy Reliability Error rate Accuracy: Accuracy is the proximity of measurement results. Here we describe the accuracy in terms of percentage. Percentage ranges from 0-100. Here we attain the highest accuracy that means data is migrated successfully [10]. (1) where, TN is the number of true negative cases FP is the number of false positive cases FN is the number of false negative cases TP is the number of true positive cases Fig.(a) Accuracy graph As shown in the above graph, maximum accuracy is attained i.e, 95% and more than this. In this proposed model for migration accuracy achieves best results. Reliability: Reliability is the ability of a component or a system to perform the tasks successfully for a given time under provided conditions. It is the Consistency and validity of test results determined through statistical methods after repeated trials without degradation or failure [11]. (2) Where, R(t) = reliability e = exponential (2.178) ÊÅ ½ = failure time m = mtbf (mean time between failures) t = time Fig. (b) Reliability graph As shown in above graph, maximum accuracy is attained i.e, 93% and more than this. In this proposed model for migration reliability achieves best results. Error Rate: An Error rate is a deviation from accuracy or correctness. A mistake is an error caused by a fault: the fault being misjudgment, carelessness, or forgetfulness [12]. (3) where, , (energy per bit to noise power spectral density ratio) or, Es/ (energy per modulation symbol to noise density). Fig.(c) Error Rate graph As shown in above graph, minimum error rate is attained i.e, 5%. In this proposed model for migration error rate is very less. As mentioned above the three parameters are evaluated from the proposed work. Accuracy, Reliability and Error rate, all three parameters achieves best results. Table I: Accuracy, Reliability and error rate values (in %) calculated from different data’s schemas that are migrated. Fig. (d) Graph represents above table values per number of time execution The above figure has two axis x-axis represents the number of time the execution takes place and y-axis represents the percentage of all three parameters. CONCLUSION This research has a great scope in reducing the load over the server to provide the optimized result. In this work done till now, it successfully migrates the generated architecture and its data to another server. Here proposed a new approach based on Bee Colony Optimization (BCO) technique and Go Daddy server. The transfer accuracy is almost 90-95 percent. For successful migration XAML is used, as XAML is one of the most light weight language and it is supported by all other platforms also, it would be easier for the second server to adapt the language. Error rate is very less, so the proposed approach works well in migration. In future, this approach can be applied to the system with more than two servers in the migration. The current system does not evaluate any computation time for the evaluation that how much time has been elapsed in the transfer. So in future time elapsed in transferring the data taken into consideration. Also, the transfer of the data is limited i.e. in the generation of the architecture system; you cannot generate more than a fixed number of columns. Reactive Arthritis: Causes, Features and Treatments Reactive Arthritis: Causes, Features and Treatments Reactive arthritis Minor changes. References reduced. 64.58 Reactive Arthritis Ramesh M Bhat M and Rochelle C Monteiro Introduction Reactive arthritis (ReA) is defined as an episode of peripheral arthritis of more than one 1-month duration occurring in association with conjunctivitis and urethritis and/or cervicitis. It is triggered by an infection, most often in the gastrointestinal or urogenital tract. It is also known as Reiter’s syndrome, Feissinger– Leroy’s disease, Brodie’s syndrome and conjunctivo-urethro-synovial syndrome. The term ReA Reactive arthritis was originally introduced to define a sterile joint inflammation during and after an infection elsewhere in the body. The definition was later modified since nucleic acids and bacterial antigens were found in the inflamed joints. ² Etiology  Aetiology Reactive arthritis (ReA) follows an infection in the urogenital tract (venereal form) or gastrointestinal tract (dysenteric form). The venereal form follows recent sexual contact, whereas the dysentricdysenteric form is associated with a wide variety of intestinal pathogens and non-specific diarrhoeal illnesses. The most common organisms implicated are as follows: Post Post-dysenteric form: Salmonella (different serotypes), Yersinia tuberculosis, Shigella flexneri, Shigella S. sonnei, and Campylobacter jejuni. These organisms are found to be HLA HLAB27– dependent. Hence, Individuals individuals with HLA-B27 positivity are strongly predisposed to develop the disease. Post Post-venereal form: Chlamydia trachomatis. Some newer organisms have been implicated recently in causation of reactive arthritisReA, namely Chlamydia C. pneumonia, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma M. fermentans, Neisseria Gonorrhoeagonorrhoeae, Borrelia burgdorferi, Clostridium difficile, ÃŽ ²-haemolytic streptococci, Propionibacterium acnes, EscherischiaEscherichia coli, Helicobacter pylori, Calmette CalmetteGuerin bacillus, Brucella abortus, Leptospira , Bartonella, Tropheyreyma whippeli, Gardnerella vaginalis, Giardia lamblia. ³ Drugs are generally not implicated in the aetiology of reactive arthritisReA;, however, a single case of Lithium lithium precipitating pre-existing ReA1: Kindly check for clarity>aOKctive arthritis has been described.à ¢Ã‚ Ã‚ ´ Pathobiology The prevalence of ReAactive arthritis is estimated to be 0.1% worldwide. The disease mainly affects people in the 2nd 4thsecond to fourth decade of life. The Infection infection occurs 1–4 weeks following genitourinary infection, with a male–female ratio of 9:1. The Enteric enteric type has an equal incidence in both males and females.à ¢Ã‚ Ã‚ ¶ Systemic Featuresfeatures The disease primarily affects the joints, eyesà ¢Ã‚ Ã‚ ·, the skin and genitalia. Rarely, patients present with cardiac, renal, and neural abnormalities. Arthritis Articular manifestations are most commonly of an acute, non-destructive oligoarthritis usually affecting the large joints of the lower limbs which persists for 4–5 months. ‘Sausage digit’ or diffuse swelling of an entire toe/finger occurs in 16% of patients. Enthesitis is another characteristic feature of patients with ReA. It is defined as an inflammation of the ligaments and tendons at their site of insertion into the bone. Patients may also develop heel pain and achilles Achilles tendonitis. Sacroiliitis is another distinctive feature of the disease which results in a low back pain.8-10 Urethritis ReAactive arthritis usually follows 1–3 weeks after an episode of urethritis. Urethritis may occur even in post postdysenteric cases. The non nonspecific urethritis presents with mild non-purulent urethral discharge. Haemorrhagic cystitis and prostatitis may develop in a few patients. In females, it manifests as cervicitis associated with cervical discharge. Rarely, bleeding and abdominal pain may occur.à ¢Ã‚ Ã‚ µ Mucocutaneous lesions Keratoderma blennorrhagica or Pustulosis pustulosis palmoplantaris is a specific cutaneous lesion in ReA. Patients present with pustules over the palms and soles which are gradually covered with thick horny crusts. Lesions may coalesce. Psoriasiform lesions are also common (Fig. 58.1). The biopsy of of skin lesions with acanthosis and epidermal neutrophilia (Fig. 58.2) Circinate balanitis is a painless geographic dermatitis occurring over the glans penis (Fig. 58.31). In addition, small, shallow ulcers are seen over the glans and urethral meatus and also over the oral cavity. Nail changes are a common finding and include subungual hyperkeratosis, onycholysis, ridging and nail shedding.10,11 Visceral lesions Visceral involvements mainly include the cardiac, renal and neural systems. Cardiovascular manifestations present as conduction delays and aortic disease. Proteinuria, microhaematuria, aseptic pyuria, and rarely, glomerulonephritis occur when the renal system is involved. Transient neurologic dysfunction such as cranial or peripheral nerve palsies have been described in some patients.10 The disease is usually self selflimiting. The joint manifestations regress completely within a few months (3–5 months). Enthesopathy, balanitis and psoriatic lesions may persist even after joint inflammation has subsided. Recurrences are common. Some patients develop chronic polyarthritis, usually HLA HLAB27– positive individuals.12 Ocular Featuresfeatures Bilateral mucopurulent conjunctivitis is the most common ocular manifestation of ReA that occurs in more than 50% of patients. It is one of the important components of the triad of the disease. Occasionally, the conjunctivitis may be purulent but remains transient, mild and associated with a sterile discharge. It subsides within 1–4 weeks. Acute anterior uveititsuveitis may be found in about one-fifth of cases, especially in those who are positive for HLA-B27.7 Other ocular complications of ReA include keratitis, corneal ulcer with or without hypopyon, episcleritis, scleritis, papilloedema, retinal oedema, retinal vasculitis and retrobulbar neuritis. ¹Ã‚ ³ Vision is usually impaired from corneal scar or recurrent chronic uveitis causing secondary glaucoma, complicated cataract or cystoids macular oedema. ¹Ãƒ ¢Ã‚ Ã‚ ´ Diagnosis Laboratory findings in ReA are non-specific and do not usually provide a conclusive diagnosis regarding the aetiology. Prognosis Individuals who are HLA HLAB27– positive have a more severe disease form. Male gender and a positive family history for spondyloarthropathies, ankylosing spondylitis and recurrent episodes of arthritis are indicators of a bad prognosis.9 Treatment Patient education has plays a major role in patients with ReAactive arthritis. The chronic relapsing nature of the disease should be explained to the patients for better compliance with therapeutic modalities. Conjunctivitis is usually self-limiting. A slit slitlamp examination is necessary to rule out uveitis, which if present has to be managed with topical corticosteroids, cycloplaegics and mydriatics. Keratoderma blenorrhagicablennorrhagica is treated using topical steroids and keratolytics. Low potency topical steroids are used in circinate balanitis.10 Non Nonsteroidal anti antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID’s) are highly effective in pain management in patients with ReAactive arthritis. Intra Intraarticular steroids are advocated in oligo/monoarticular disease. The use of systemic steroids has been discouraged except in severe cases where short courses may be given.15 Antibiotics are useful in the post postvenereal form of ReAactive arthritis. Their role in the post postdysenteric form remains controversial. Commonly used antibiotics include erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline and doxycycline.11 In patients who fail to respond to the above mentioned conventional therapy, a more aggressive therapeutic approach is needed. This includes Disease disease modifying anti antirheumatic drugs (DMARD’s). References 1. Fisk PK. Reiter’s disease. British Med J 1982; 284:3. 132. Kingsley G, Sieper J. Third international International workshop Workshop on Reactive arthritis Arthritis, 23–-26 September, 1995, Berlin : An overview. Ann Rheum Dis 55:564–570. 143. Kiss S, LetkoE, Qamruddin S, et al, Long-term progression, prognosis and treatment of patients with recurrent ocular manifestations of Reiter’s syndrome. Ophthalmology 2003;110::1764–1769. 154. Schumacher HR Jr., Reactive arthritis. Rheum Dis Clin North Am 1998; 24:261–-273. Early Years Care and Education: History and Policies Early Years Care and Education: History and Policies This essay explores the range of early year settings that are involved in the care and education of young children, and discuss the roles and responsibilities of the professionals who work at these settings. Two critical incidents will be focused upon with the use of a Personal Reflection Diary, which has been taken throughout Practical Placements. The diary will emphasize the roles and responsibilities of the professionals that are key within the setting. The essay will also evaluate the curricula appropriate to the setting that were visited during placement and compare it to another practice setting. The essay will finish with a personal statement defining what has been learnt from the experiences. First, the history of care and education of young children will be reflected upon. Next, there will be a discussion on social care and health care legislation which is affiliated to the support of childrens health and safety (historical to present day). A Reflective Account will follow, which will consider two incidents which identifies the roles of the professionals who work in various settings. Subsequently, the author will define the importance of reflective practice. Finally, conclusions will be drawn as to whether the objectives have been met. History of care and education- Education sector first started and when did children become important? Pre 1870 there was no organised system of education. Instead children were sent out to work to earn money for their families. Some children attended schools run by charities and churches or Dame schools run by women for young children. There were fee paying schools for those rich enough to afford them or the wealthier children were taught at home by governesses. In the social legislation of this period education did not become a real priority until the year of the first Education Act, 1870. The 1870 Education Act also known as the Forster Act, that we have the real birth of the modern system of education in England. This not only gave rise to a national system of state education but also assured the existence of a dual system voluntary denominational schools and nondenominational state schools. The act required the establishment of elementary schools nationwide. These were not to replace or duplicate what already existed but supplement those already run by the churches, private individuals and guilds. Elementary education became effectively free with the passing of the 1891 Education Act. The1870 Forster Education Act set up mass primary education (education for everyone). It was introduced because the government was worried that the working class was becoming revolutionary and also because it was thought that Britains economy was falling behind the rest of the world. The education received therefore a strong emphasis on obedience to authority. The Victorians soon realised the importance to read and write. Passage of the Education Act of 1870 was an important event because the act established compulsory elementary schools for all children from the age of 5. All children had to attend school until they were 10 years old. Education Legislation (historical to present day). By 1880 many new schools had been set up by the boards. This made it possible for the 1880 Education Act to make school attendance compulsory for all children up to the age of ten. The school boards were abolished under the 1902 Education Act. In their place Local Educational Authorities (LEAs) were created to organize funding, employ teachers and allocate school places. Under the 1918 Education Act school became obligatory for all children up to the age of 14. The Act was conceived by the liberal MP Herbert Fisher (1865-1940). Other features of the Act included the provision of additional services in schools, such as medical inspections, nurseries and provision for pupils with special needs. During the 1920s and 1930s Sir Henry Hadow (1859-1937) chaired a consultative committee that was responsible for several important reports on education in England. In 1926, a report entitled The Education of the Adolescent looked at primary education in detail for the first time. It prioritized activity and experience, rather than rote learning and discussed, for the first time, the specific needs of children with learning difficulties. The report also made the important recommendation of limiting class sizes to a maximum of thirty children. In 1931, another report was published: The Primary School was influenced by the educational ideas of Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget and advocated a style of teaching based on childrens interests. The 1944 Education Act saw the introduction of the tripartite system. Devised by Conservative MP Rab Butler (1902-1982), the Act introduced three different types of school: Grammar schools for the more academic pupil, Secondary Modern schools for a more practical, non-academic style of education and Technical schools for specialist practical education. Pupils were allocated to a particular type of school by taking an examination called the 11- Plus, which was also introduced under the Act. Secondary education now became free for all and the school-leaving age rose to 15. Comprehensive schooling was recommended in a document issued by the Labor Government in 1965 called the Circular 10/65. The system was developed in contrast to the tripartite system and was instead intended to suit pupils of all abilities. The Plowden Report is the unofficial name for the 1967 report of the Central Advisory Council for Education (England) into Primary Education. The report was called Children and their Primary Schools and was named after the chair of the Council, Lady Bridget Plowden (1910-2000). It observed that new skills were needed in society, stating that, the qualities needed in a modern economy extend far beyond skills such as accurate spelling and arithmetic. They include greater curiosity and adaptability, a high level of aspiration, and others which are difficult to measure. (The Plowden Report: Children and their Primary Schools, London: Her Majestys Stationery Office, 1967.) The Education Act 1973 stated that schools leaving age was raised to 16. The National Curriculum was introduced in the 1988 Education Act. It made all education the same for state-funded schools, ensuring that all pupils had access to a basic level of education. A selection of subjects was made compulsory including maths, English, science and some form of religious education. It also introduced sex education for the first time. Pupils were divided into Key Stages, depending on their age, Key Stage 1 for pupils aged 5-7, Key Stage 2 for pupils aged 7-11, Key Stage 3 for pupils aged 11-14 and Key Stage 4 for pupils aged 14-16. The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) was introduced to replace O-levels and the Certificate of Secondary Education (CSE). In 1996, the Conservative government introduced the first stage of a Nursery Voucher scheme. The Voucher scheme allowed parents to use vouchers worth up to  £1,100 per child for up to three terms of part-time education for their 4-year-old children, in any form of preschool provision. However, in 1997, the incoming Labour Government abolished the voucher scheme and made its own plans for the development of early years services. The government provided direct funding to preschool institutions for part-time places for 4-year-old children and an increasing number of part-time places for 3-year-old children. Around 1999, the government introduced a Foundation Stage of early learning, which is a new stage of education for children age 3 to the end of their reception year when they will be 5. The Labour government revealed plans to introduce City Academies in 2002 as part of a five-year plan to improve education. City Academies are designed to improve inner city education by building new schools, introducing new technology and changing the ethos of schools. The scheme is controversial since schools will only get academy status if they raise  £2 million from private funds. Various types of early years education provisions There are a number of various types of early years education settings that can offer the free entitlement: day nurseries, private nursery schools, maintained nursery schools and nursery classes attached to primary schools, preschools and playgroups, primary school reception classes, where schools operate an early admission policy to admit four year olds, accredited child minders who are part of networks approved to deliver early education and Sure Start Childrens Centers. Theorists who may have impacted upon early years provision. The first infant school was opened by Robert Owen (1771-1858), utopian radical socialist reformer-mill owner who had set up crà ¨ches for the children of his workers as well as housing and health facilities. Pestalozzi (1745-1827) attracted the attention of some education reformers. Pestalozzian schools attempted to recognise the specific requirements of young children. Also very influential was the kindergarten movement, Froebel (1782-1852). First opened in England in 1851 Froebels vision was to educate the whole child. Outdoor activities played a signiFIcant part, but his vision was of the children as plants in the garden of the school flowering and blossoming under the correct care and attention as you would care for a plant. Gradually though the more precise nature of Froebels pedagogy and philosophies got taken over by a wider emphasis on play combined with domestic tasks as defined by the theories of psychologists. Stanley Hall (1884-1924) and John Dewey (1859-1952) Also these kindergartens were also rescuers of the children of the urban poor so the teachers became more like social workers. Another significant figure was Maria Montessori (1870-1952). Her work came to be seen as more a preserve of middle class private nurseries but originally she worked with deprived children of Naples and aimed to develop cognitive physical linguistic social and self care skills through carefully structured play activities and equipment. Advocate of natural materials wooden blocks sandpaper letters. She thought that too many brightly coloured toys and pictures could over stimulate. Children were taught to concentrate on one activity the put it away and move on to the next one. Margaret McMillan (1860-1931), was a Christian socialist and was regarded as the originator of Nursery School concept. Opened an open air nursery school in London in 1913 focus on sense training and health of the young child. Sand water clay and paint free cooked meals fresh air covered area so the children could be outside as much as possible. Roles of professionals that work in early years Then Early Years Practitioners (EYP) will be trained to often work as part of the team of skilled and committed people working with children in early years settings or wider childrens services. Take responsibility for leading and managing play, care and learning. Have a secure and up-to-date knowledge and understanding of early years practice with children from birth to five; and be skilled and effective practitioners. In addition to this, EYP will have an important role in leading and supporting other staff by helping them to develop and improve their practice, establish and maintain positive relationships with Children and communicate and work in partnership with families, carers and other professionals. Social care and health care legislation which is affiliated to the support of childrens health and safety (historical to present day) Range of health care settings in early years. There are many types of social and health care in early years for example Health clinics, residential care, home visiting scheme, children centres, paediatric services. Health and social care professionals, for example: Health visitors, GPs, midwives, childrens centre staff, social workers and mental health services.

Thursday, September 19, 2019

Romanticism Arts Essay examples -- essays research papers

Sensation, imagination, and judgment are interrelated in the experience of art. Burke explains how sensation, imagination, and judgment determine the experience of pleasure and pain, and how pleasure and pain are represented by the aesthetic concepts of beauty and sublimity. Burke says that, in order to understand the origin of our ideas of the sublime and beautiful, we must examine the experience of pain and pleasure. Romantic painter Caspar David Friedrich has a painting that will leave viewers in thought. His painting, The Wanderer at the Sea of Fog, leaves us to ponder what has happened. We see a man, wearing all black, standing on a ledge of rocks. He gazes out into a beautiful open sky, slightly cloudy, with the sun setting. There is an orange haze left as the reflection of the sun fills the sky. However, we cannot see his face. We do not know his facial expression, if he is sad, or if he just wanted to see the view. The end of pleasure may result in a state of indifference, disappointment, or grief. On the other hand, the end of pain may result in a state of indifference, happiness, or delight. Burke uses the term "delight" to refer to a pleasure which is caused by the removal of pain, while he uses the term "joy" to refer to a pleasure which arises in and of itself. As I look at this painting, I try and wonder if this painting h...

Spontaneous Human Combustion :: essays research papers

For as yet scientifically unknown reasons, times occur when an unsuspecting person can just burst into flames and be incinerated. This is referred to in the scientific world as Spontaneous Human Combustion or SHC. There are many documented cases throughout history. The earliest cases go as far back as the early 16th century. Then there are the ones that are as recent as 1998 but have no better explanation of what happen then the ones in the 16th century did. There are truly only two types of cases: fatal and non-fatal. The fatal cases of SHC represent three-quarters of all the reported incidents. The most common of these cases is the famous "bedroom burnings" in which a victim is found as a pile of ashes with only limbs remaining. These burnings a characterized by five main features: 1) The victim’s body and clothing is mostly reduced to ash. 2) Small portions of the body (an arm, a foot, maybe the head) remain unburned. 3) Only objects immediately associated with the body have burned; the fire never spread away from the body. 4) A greasy soot deposit covers the ceiling and walls, usually stopping three to four feet above the floor. 5) Objects above this three to four foot line show signs of heat damage (melted candles, cracked mirrors, etc.); objects below this line show o damage. These cases are the ones that mass media tend to cover most and is what most people think of when they hear about spontaneous human combustion. Nearly half of the cases are "bedroom burnings" Another common case under the fatal category are the witnessed combustions, in which people are actually seen by witnesses to burst into flames. Most of the time witnesses claim that there was no other source of ignition and/or the flames were seen to come directly from the victim’s skin. These cases present the fact that maybe SHC has more to do with the supernatural than science. Unfortunately, most of theses cases are poorly documented and usually unconfirmed. The second major type of SHC is the non-fatal cases. The victims usually don’t know anymore than the investigators do. The good thing about this is that the victims are alive to tell about what happened and cause most SHC skeptics to take a look at the picture again. Non-fatal cases usually incorporate one or more of the following features. The most common is the mysterious flames. This is where a victim will just begin to emit flames form their body.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

Cold Mountain by Charles Frazier Essay -- Cold Mountain Charles Frazie

Cold Mountain In Charles Frazier’s Cold Mountain, the theme of music is one of the novel’s most powerful themes. From symbolizing character growth to the healing of physical wounds, music plays an integral part in this novel. While many critics will point out that music has little effect on the human psyche, Charles Frazier shows his belief that music does indeed have a profound effect on the human mind throughout Cold Mountain. Throughout the novel, Inman, Ada, Ruby, Stobrod, and many other characters experience music that allows them to keep faith against the odds or even heal their wounds! There are three major types of music used in this novel; hymn music, folk music, and â€Å"natural music†. It is through these types of music that the characters in this novel regain their strength to continue their journeys. Many critics of Cold Mountain claim that Frazier ignored certain historical facts in order to make his point. However, when writing about the music of the Sou th during the Civil War, Frazier stays very accurate in the use and power of music. In the world of Cold Mountain as well as the historical South, music is an extremely powerful force. Even though there is only one scene in this novel that involves a church, hymn music is one of the most prominent themes in Cold Mountain. Even more surprisingly, Frazier’s usage of hymn music throughout the novel is very accurate. Hymn music during the Civil War was extremely important to the Christian churches as well as to society as a whole. Religious music was a wonderful representation of the values and culture of the times (Squire 237). It is through hymns during the Civil War that values and culture are passed down. The hymns of Monroe’s church caused Ada to grow... ...venate, and even save the lives of people. To Frazier it is through music the meaning to life is found. Works Cited 1. Bealle, John. Public Worship, Private Faith: Sacred Harp and American Folksong. Athens: U of Georgia P, 1997. 2. Berger, Melvin. The Story of Folk Music. New York: S.G. Phillips, 1976. 3. Carlin, Richard, and Bob Carlin. Southern Exposure: The Story of Southern Music in Pictures and Words. New York: Billboard, 2000. 4. Douglas, Winfred. Church Music in History and Practice. New York: The Hale Foundation, 1962. 5. Frazier, Charles. Cold Mountain. New York: Vintage, 1998. 6. Jennings, Lane. â€Å"Where, Oh Where, Have the Good Old Songs Gone?† Futurist Nov/Dec. 2003. EBSCOhost. Online. Academic Search Premier. 7 Feb. 2004. 7. Squire, Russel. Church Music. St. Louis: The Bethany P, 1962.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Philippines Economy Essay

Philippines has displaced Indonesia as Asean economic leader — S&P I consider this as a good news for us Filipinos. We may not feel the economic growth for now but it’s actually a good thing that we have indicators of how well or poor our economy is doing. This article only means that we will now be able attract more investors to invest in the Philippines. More foreign investors means more job opportunities just like jobs for construction workers. And yes, it is not permanent but if this will continue, life will be a lot easier for the future generations. Our concern should not just be for ourselves but for the future of our country. We need to work the common good. We should all be positive in dealing with our problems and consider news like this as a blessing. More positive news like this is an indication that our economy is doing very well. It feels really good to know that this is actually happening. Despite all that we have encountered in the past years, during the past administration, we are still able to survive and are trying to improve even more. If we really want to contribute to the growth of our economy, we should learn to be productive. Don’t contribute to the growing rate of unemployment. Look for a stable job instead to help feed your family and in that simple way, you can greatly help the economy of our nation. Anything worth having is worth working hard for. Those things that we have quickly achieved will not last long. So we have to continue to work hard for ourselves and for other people. And little by little, we will be able to save our nation. Let us believe in what our leader can do and what we can do for our country. News like this is favorable to us. This only means that our President is really trying to fulfill his promises. Philippines is fastest growing Asian country for first quarter of 2013 I believe that this is more of a reminder for us to do the best that we can do to help our country. This article shows two sides of the story – the negative and the positive which I consider a good thing. Good thing because it depicts reality. â€Å"Philippines is fastest growing Asian country for first quarter of 2013,† only for the first quarter, not for the whole year. Yes, we are just halfway through the year. But what I mean is, nothing is permanent and everything doesn’t happen in a blink of an eye. With all the bad news that we can hear everyday, having this kind of article does not mean that we are able to get through it all. I am not trying to be negative. I just want to give emphasis to those negative things that we can turn into positive. The Philippines is still facing many challenges. One of which is still the growing rate of unemployment. I would like to give emphasis on issues of job mismatch. I believe that the only way to solve this is through education. For me, we should never stop learning. Even when we graduate from school and even when we are already working. We have to continue to enhance our skills to do better things. Before students graduate from High School, they should already have an idea of what they want to become in the future. That will bring out the best in themselves. And when they graduate, they have to look for a job that they love and they will never get tired of doing it. How is this possible? Let everyone be informed of the importance of education. Continue to inspire and Motivate. Share stories of hope. Pay it forward. Economic Expansion slows down in Japan This is kind of surprising to know but I believe they can get over this. They are very hardworking, very creative, unique and one of the countries we all look forward to. With how they are able to maintain a good economy, good people, that is something. But then again, let’s face the reality. Japan’s public debt surpassed the 1 quadrillion yen ( £6.7tn) mark last week and the country needs a strong recovery to boost tax revenues enough to begin reducing its debt burden. It will raise pressure on the leader. Japan has always been competitive and this is a challenge for them. Many of Japan’s corporations have enjoyed higher profits due to the yen’s fall against other currencies, boosting the value of their overseas earnings when counted in yen terms. The recovery in exports has been a boon for global corporations, such as Toyota.But corporate investment has remained flat, falling 0.1% in April to June. Residential investment also weakened, despite signs of a recovery in housing construction. Meanwhile, wages have risen only for some workers, accentuating concerns over whether household income will keep pace as prices rise under the government’s campaign to end deflation through extreme monetary easing.

Monday, September 16, 2019

African American In The 1920s Essay

The aspect of African-American Studies is key to the lives of African-Americans and those involved with the welfare of the race. African-American Studies is the systematic and critical study of the multidimensional aspects of Black thought and practice in their current and historical unfolding (Karenga, 21). African-American Studies exposes students to the experiences of African-American people and others of African descent. It allows the promotion and sharing of the African-American culture. However, the concept of African-American Studies, like many other studies that focus on a specific group, gender, and/or creed, poses problems. Therefore, African-American Studies must overcome the obstacles in order to improve the state of being for African-Americans. According to the book, Introduction to Black Studies, by Maulana Karenga, various core principles make of the basis of African-American Studies. Some of the core principles consist of 1)history, 2)religion, 3)sociology, 4)politics, and 5)economics. The core principles serve as the thematic â€Å"glue† which holds the core subjects together. The principles assist with the expression of the African-American Studies discipline (Karenga, 27). The core principle of history is primary factor of African-American Studies. History is the struggle and record of humans in the process of humanizing the world i. e. shaping it in their own image and interests (Karenga, 70). By studying history in African-American Studies, history is allowed to be reconstructed. Reconstruction is vital, for over time, African-American history has been misleading. Similarly, the reconstruction of African-American history demands intervention not only in the academic process to redefines and reestablishes the truth of Black History, but also intervention in the social process to reshape reality in African-American images and interests and thus, self-consciously make history (Karenga, 69). African American History or Black American History, a history of African-American people in the United States from their arrival in the Americas in the Fifteenth Century until the present day. In 1996, 33. 9 million Americans, about one out of every eight people in the United States, were African-American. Although African-American from the West Indies and other areas have migrated to the United States in the Twentieth Century, most African- Americans were born in the United States, and this has been true since the early Nineteenth Century. Until the mid-20th century, the African-American population was concentrated in the Southern states. Even today, nearly half of all African-Americans live in the South. African-Americans also make up a significant part of the population in most urban areas in the eastern United States and in some mid-western and western cities as well . Africans and their descendants have been a part of the story of the Americas at least since the late 1400s. As scouts, interpreters, navigators, and military men, African-Americans were among those who first encountered Native Americans. Beginning in the colonial period, African-Americans provided most of the labor on which European settlement, development, and wealth depended, especially after European wars and diseases decimated Native Americans (http://encarta. msn. com). Thus, history plays a role in the way African-Americans have shaped the world over time. The core concept of African-American religion has always played a vital roles in the African-American life since its beginnings in Africa. Religion is defined as thought, belief, and practice concerned with the transcendent and the ultimate questions of life (Karenga, 211). The vast majority of African Americans practice some form of Protestantism. Protestantism’s relatively loose hierarchical structure, particularly in the Baptist and Methodist denominations, has allowed African Americans to create and maintain separate churches. Separate churches enabled blacks to take up positions of leadership denied to them in mainstream America. In addition to their religious role, African American churches traditionally provide political leadership and serve social welfare functions. The African Methodist Episcopal Church, the first nationwide black church in the United States, was founded by Protestant minister Richard Allen in Philadelphia in 1816. The largest African American religious denomination is the National Baptist Convention, U. S. A. , founded in 1895. A significant number of African Americans are Black Muslims. The most prominent Black Muslim group is the Nation of Islam, a religious organization founded by W. D. Fard and Elijiah Poole in 1935. Poole, who changed his name to Elijiah Muhammad, soon emerged as the leader of the Nation of Islam. Elijiah Muhammad established temples in Detroit, Chicago, and other northern cities. Today, Louis Farrakhan leads the Nation of Islam. A small number of African American Muslims worship independently of the Nation of Islam, as part of the mainstream Islamic tradition (http://encarta. msn. com). Presented with the fact that African-American religion is predominately Judeo-Christian, the tendency is to view it as â€Å"white religion in black face†. However, the rooting of the two religions varies due to the historical and social experiences (Karenga, 212). African-American over time has somewhat declined in its power. The church was once the sole basis of the community, especially to those in need. Today, this is speculated to be the link in the decline in the bonding of the African-American community. The core principle of African-American sociology integrates the various aspects and social reality from an African-American perspective. African-American sociology is defined as the critical study of the structure and functioning of the African-American community as a whole, as well as the various units and processes which compose and define it, and its relations with people and the forces external to it (Karenga, 269). African-American sociology involves the study of family, groups, institutions, views and values, relations of race, class and gender and related subjects. The African-American community, like other communities, is defined by the sharing of common space. Parts of its common space, however, are bounded areas of living, such as ghettos, which not only close African-Americans in the community, but simultaneously shuts them out from the access and opportunities available in the larger, predominately Caucasian society (Karenga, 302). The concept of isolation creates areas of poverty. Socially, isolation in ghettos prevents the cycle of diversity society, allowing prevailing stereotypes to surface. The immense concentration of African-Americans is a reason for disadvantages, such as joblessness, poverty, etc. Statistics suggest that the employment rate issue is an essential on among African-American women. The average rate of unemployment among African-American women in the 1980’s was 16% and was higher for African-American men (Giddings, 350). Thus, the concept of diversity prevents African-Americans from thriving socially. The core concept of African-American politics can be defined as the art and process of gaining, maintaining and using power (Karenga, 311). The institution of politics has played a role in the African-American community since the 15th amendment was passed, allowing African-American men the right to vote (Constitution). In order to obtain political power, however, there are eight bases: 1) key positions in government 2) voting strength 3) community control 4) economic capacity 5) community organization 6) possession of critical knowledge 7) coalition and alliance and 8) coercive capacity. In order to attain these, African-Americans must unite, for unity strengthens weak groups (African-Americans) and increases the power of others (Caucasians) (Karenga, 363). Over time, African-Americans have made substantial strides in politics. Civil rights leader Jesse Jackson, who ran for the Democratic Party’s presidential nomination in 1984 and 1988, brought exceptional support and force to African-American politics. In 1989, Virginia became the first state in U. S. history to elect an African- American governor, Douglas Wilder. In 1992, Carol Moseley-Braun of Illinois became the first African-American woman elected to the U. S. Senate. Today, Moseley-Braun is a candidate for the Presidency of the United States (Franklin, 612). There were 8,936 African-American office holders in the United States in 2000, showing a net increase of 7,467 since 1970. In 2001, there were 484 mayors and 38 members of Congress. The Congressional Black Caucus serves as a political alliance in Congress for issues relating to African- Americans. The appointment of African-Americans to high federal offices? including Colin Powell (chairman of the U. S. Armed Forces Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1989-1993; Secretary of State, 2001-present), Ron Brown (Secretary of Commerce, 1993-1996), and Supreme Court justice Clarence Thomas? also demonstrates the increasing power of African-Americans in the political arena (http://encarta. msn. com). Despite the advances of African-Americans in the political scene, the rate of voting has immensely declined compared to 40 years ago. According to statistics, less than 20% of African-Americans between the ages of 18 and 24, the most vital voting age group, voted in the last 40 years (http://www. rockthevote. org ). African-American voting’s disappointing decline over time has become a setback in regards to power, for politics control most of the issues that concern society, such as healthcare, housing, and employment: issues that the African-American community are in need of improving. The core concept of economics is defined as the study and process of producing, distributing (or exchanging) and consuming goods and services. Economically, African-Americans have benefited from the advances made during the Civil Rights era. The racial disparity in poverty rates has narrowed to some extent. The African-American middle class has grown substantially. In 2000, 47% of African-Americans owned their homes. However, African-Americans are still underrepresented in government and employment. In 1999, median income of African American household was $27,910 compared to $44,366 of non-Hispanic Caucasians. Approximately one-fourth of the African-American population lives in poverty, a rate three times that of Caucasians. In 2000, 19. 1 % of the African-American population lived below poverty level as compared to 6. 9% of Caucasians population. The unemployment gap between African-Americans and Caucasians has grown. In 2000, the unemployment rate among African-Americans was almost twice the rate for Caucasians. The income gap between African-American and Caucasian families also continue to widen. Employed African-Americans earn only 77% of the wages of Caucasians in comparable jobs, down from 82% in 1975. In 2000, only 16. 6% of African-Americans 25 years and older earned bachelor’s or higher degrees in contrast to 28. 1% of Caucasians. Although rates of births to unwed mothers among both African-Americans and Caucasians have risen since the 1950’s, the rate of such births among African-Americans is three times the rate of Caucasians (DeBose, 1). Thus, the state of African-American economics have flourished over time, yet remains in a state of improvement. Whether one talks about poverty, incomes, jobs, etc. , all imply and necessitate the concern with economics in the African-American community (Karenga, 355). Conclucively, the possibility of problems arising towards the discipline of African-American Studies are rooted in the birth of the discipline itself (Karenga, 476). The mission of the discipline, problematic administrators, and campus opposition are examples of obstacles that often attempt to prevent the missions of African-American Studies. However, African-American Studies has continued to defend its stance over time. Thus, as long as there is an African-American culture, the quest for knowledge in the African-American studies field will remain. Works Cited DeBose,Brian. â€Å"Reclaiming the Mission†. Nov. 2002 . Franklin, John Hope. From Slavery to Freedom. Nashville, TN: McGraw-Hill, 2000. Giddings, Paula. When and Where I Enter . New York:Perrenial, 1984. Karenga, Malauna. Introduction to Black Studies. Los Angeles: University of Sankore Press ? Third Edition, 2002. http://encarta. msn. com http://www. rockthevote. com.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

The Ability of Yeast to Ferment Sugar Molecules

All cells need to have a constant energy supply. The two processes by which this energy is attained from photosynthetic materials to form ATP are cellular respiration and fermentation. (Hyde,2012). Fermentation is a way of harvesting chemical energy that does not require oxygen. (Reece et al. 2012). When the body is deprived of oxygen it will then begin to meet its energy needs through the slow process of fermentation. In our lab we investigated alcoholic fermentation by using yeast, which can flourish in an low energy environment in anaerobic conditions.In this lab our goal was to discover the rate at which yeast will ferment different sized molecules of carbohydrates. In order to perform our experiment we made use of water, glucose, sucrose, and starch. It was hypothesized that glucose, sucrose, then starch would all be used to produce energy during fermentation. Being that glucose is a simple sugar, or monosaccharide, we predicted that glucose would be fermented most quickly. This hypothesis was made based on the idea that glucose is the cell's main source of energy in aerobic cellular respiration. The first step of cellular respiration is glycolysis which breaks down glucose for energy.We predicted that Sucrose would ferment second to glucose since it is a larger molecule composed of glucose and fructose. Finally, we predicted that starch would ferment extremely slow behind all of the other carbohydrates. METHODS AND MATERIALS: On October 31, 2012 in the lab of Greenfield Community College my lab partners, Madeline Hawes, Timothy Walsh and I conducted the following experiment in order to test the effectiveness of yeasts' ability to ferment different carbohydrates. We first filled 6 small flasks with 75 ml of water and 5 drops of phenol red to each flask.Four of these were labeled with the solution that would feed into them and the other two with â€Å"control† and the last with â€Å"increased CO2. † The color of phenol red is orangish-pink wh en there is a neutral pH present. As carbon dioxide is released into this solution from the release of the gas from the yeast filled flasks, the solution turns a light yellow indicating a weak acid. We measured out four weigh boats of 2 grams each of starch and then added 2 grams to each of 4 labeled flasks of 50 ml water, 50 ml Glucose solution, 50 ml Sucrose solution, and 50 ml Starch solution respectively.All of these had been stored in incubators to maintain an optimal temperature of 35 degrees celsius. We put these flasks into our sink which we made into a water bath. We then drained and added hot plate warmed water from a 1000 ml beaker we kept heated in order to maintain the optimal temperature of 35 degrees celsius around the flasks. We swirled the large flasks to mix the solutions and yeast as they sat in the water bath. The flasks containing the yeasts solutions were then stoppered with glass straws and tubings and their extending tubes placed into the matching labeled sma ller flasks adjacent to the sink.I blew through a straw into the flask labeled â€Å"increased CO2. † The phenol red detected the presence of CO2 turning the solution yellow. The â€Å"control† flask was left as a comparison for the remaining yeast filled tubes feeding into the other flasks of phenol red and water. RESULTS: We recorded our first observations at 10 minutes. Just as we hypothesized, the yeast and water experienced no change. In the glucose solution flask, the glucose molecules were being quickly broken down and forming a frothy head, sending a bubble of CO2 through the tube every 2 seconds while turning the phenol red to a light orange.The sucrose solution was bubbling every three seconds and also had turned light orange. At 10 minutes there was no reaction in the Starch solution. The latter data remained consistent with our hypotheses. The glucose solution at 20 minutes was very frothy and bubbly and had turned the phenol red a very light yellow with a consistent bubble through the tube every second indicating a strong presence of CO2. The sucrose, too, had turned light yellow and had continuous bubbles every 2 seconds. The starch had a rare bubble with no noticeable change in the phenol red solution.At the final check in of 40 minutes both the glucose and sucrose had fermented most of the yeast and slowed down on bubbling. The glucose still had the most bubbles occuring. The starch was a lighter pink with little change in the levels of froth in the yeast solution. The water solution still remained completely unchanged. DISCUSSION: Our hypotheses were supported through illustrating that all forms of sugar do provide energy and that glucose, being the smallest molecule, was the most efficient. The control tube contained no sugar and therefore produced no energy. A source of sugar is necessary for glycolysis and fermentation to occur.The strongest presence of carbon dioxide was in glucose, indicated by the bubbles which are a by-pro duct of ethanol fermentation. The rate of fermentation in sucrose was second to glucose and Starch was the least effective at providing a sugar to create energy. The large polysaccharide was difficult for yeast to break down to create the necessary energy that would produce carbon dioxide. Glucose is the most efficient sugar as it is a small monosaccharide which is already the source of energy for the Glycolysis cycle. The largest possible source of error in our experiment is the time in which each solution began its fermentation process.We added the yeast into each flask containing the sugar solutions at staggered times. If this experiment were to be repeated it would be more precise to have four people pour in the yeast and swirl at the exact same time and then stopper the solutions. The only minor inconsistency would be the amount of yeast that was spilled or left in the weigh boats. This could create a discrepancy in the final results. Through this lab I understoodd that in time s of oxygen deprivation the body can still function through the process of fermentation.The yield of 2 ATP molecules is enough to keep muscles contracting for a short period of time when oxygen is scarce. Through the fermentation process NAD+ is regenerated as pyruvate is broken down to CO2 and ethanol. This allows the anaerobic production of 2 ATP molecules. (Reece et al. 2012). In essence, keeping cells alive that may otherwise die without the energy to provide for muscle contractions of the heart.LITERATURE CITED: Reece, Taylor, Simon, Dickey, and Campbell. , Biology: concepts & connections. Pearson Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco, CA. Pgs. 100-101 Hyde, A. October 31, 2012